|See the following text/image to answer questions 1 through 5
|On March 16, 1978, the oil tanker the Amoco Cadiz ran aground on Portsall Rocks, three miles off the
coast of Brittany due to failure of the steering mechanism. The vessel had been en route
from the Arabian Gulf to Le Havre, France when it encountered stormy weather which
contributed to the grounding. The entire cargo of 1,619,048 barrels, spilled into the
sea. A slick 18 miles wide and 80 miles long polluted approximately 200 miles of Brittany
coastline. Beaches of 76 different Breton communities were oiled.
The isolated location of the grounding and rough seas restricted cleanup efforts for the
two weeks following the incident. Severe weather resulted in the complete break up of the
ship before any oil could be pumped out of the wreck. As mandated in the "Polmar Plan",
the French Navy was responsible for all offshore operations while the Civil Safety Service
was responsible for shore cleanup activities. Although the total quantity of collected
oil and water reached 100,000 tons, less than 20,000 tons of oil were recovered from this
liquid after treatment in refining plants.
|See the following text/image to answer questions 6 through 10
|On August 10, 1993, at approximately 0545, the freighter Balsa 37, the barge Ocean 255, and the barge Bouchard 155 collided in the shipping channel west of the Skyway Sunshine Bridge south of Mullet Key in Tampa Bay, FL. MSO Tampa closed the port to vessel traffic. This collision caused three separate emergencies:
1. The Balsa 37, which was carrying a cargo of phosphate rock, was severely damaged on the starboard side, was listing at an increasing rate, and was in danger of capsizing in the channel.
2. The Ocean 255, which was loaded with jet fuel, gasoline, and a small amount of diesel fuel was burning out of control just south of Mullet Key.
3. The Bouchard 155 was holed at the port bow spilling approximately 8,000 barrels of #6 fuel oil into Tampa Bay.
Stabilizing the vessels was the first priority of responders. By 2200 the Ocean 255 barge fire was extinguished and the GST was conducting cooling procedures and maintaining a fire watch. Lightering operations were well underway on the Bouchard 155 barge in preparation for moving it to dockage in the Port of Tampa where it would be cleaned before dry docking. The Balsa 37 was intentionally grounded outside the shipping channel to prevent it from capsizing and to open the channel for traffic while repairs and stability evaluations were conducted