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The Indus Valley Civilization


The Indus Valley Civilization was the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, South Asia and China. It is also referred by historians as the Harappan Civilization, after one of its major city named Harappa. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, both now in Pakistan, were the two major cities of this civilization.

The earliest traces of the Indus Valley Civilization are to be found in the Indian subcontinent along the Indus River. The Civilization was protected on three sides by vast oceans, and on the fourth side by virtually impassible mountains. It is believed that the Indus Valley Civilization began around 2500 B.C. and continued for until about 1,000 years later in 1,500 B.C.

The Indus Valley people were most likely Dravidians, who may have been pushed down into south India by the Aryans. Aryans invaded the Indus Valley Civilization around 2,000 BC and with their more advanced military technology, commenced their migrations to India.

First excavations in the Indus Valley were conducted in 1921-22, in the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Layout of the great cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro suggests that the civilization had an advance town planning. The Indus Valley people used same kind of burnt brick in the construction of buildings in the cities. Similarities in the construction material and design can be seen in buildings that were as much as several hundred miles apart. The Indus Valley people domesticated animals, and harvested various crops, such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. Excavation evidence suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization is also well known for their drainage systems, wells and water storage systems were the most sophisticated in the ancient world. They also developed systems of weights and trade. They made jewelry and game pieces and toys for their children. The Indus Valley people also had a class of people defined as merchants that engaged in extensive trading. Numerous seals, statuary and pottery were discovered during the excavations. Remains of the civilization have enabled historians to construct a reasonably understanding of the Indus Valley Civilization. However, the scripts found in the Indus Valley remain undeciphered to the present day.

Rulers of the Indus Valley Civilization governed the cities through the control of trade and religion. They did not use force or military strength to govern their people. Archeologist and historians did not find any evidence of warfare or weapons that may have been used by the Indus Valley people.

The fall and collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization is largely unknown. There are many theories about the collapse of this civilization. Some believe that it was due to long drought or flooding in the region. Others think that civil war or invasion from outside forces caused the decline.

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Question 1
Which civilization is also referred as Harappan Civilization?
A. The Mesopotamian CivilizationB. The South Asian Civilization
C. The Indus Valley CivilizationD. The Mohenjo-daro Civilization
Question 2
Where does Mohenjo-daro exist now?
A. in ChinaB. in Japan
C. in MalaysiaD. in Pakistan
Question 3
For how many years did the Indus Valley Civilization continue?
A. about 1,000 yearsB. about 2,500 years
C. about 500 yearsD. about 100 years
Question 4
Who invaded the Indus Valley Civilization?
A. DravidiansB. Egyptians
C. ChineseD. Aryans
Question 5
Who were the Indus Valley people?
A. GermansB. Chinese
C. PersiansD. Dravidians
Question 6
When were the first excavations in the Indus Valley conducted?
A. in 1925-29B. in 1821-22
C. in 1921-22D. in 1912-13
Question 7
How did the rulers of the Indus Valley Civilization govern the cities?
A. through the control of trade and religionB. through military strength
C. through advanced weapons and forcesD. all of the above
Question 8
Where are the earliest traces of the Indus Valley Civilization to be found?
A. Central AmericaB. Europe
C. Middle EastD. Indian subcontinent
Question 9
Where were the first excavations in the Indus Valley conducted?
A. in the ancient cities of Naushero and HarappaB. in the ancient cities of Kalibanga and Mohenjo-daro
C. in the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daroD. in the ancient cities of Dholavira and Mohenjo-daro
Question 10
Which fact about the Indus Valley Civilization is NOT correct?
A. The civilization is known for their military strengthB. The civilization is known for their advance town planning.
C. The civilization is well known for their drainage systems.D. The civilization is known for their sophisticated water storage systems.
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