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Although not noticeable, but the average temperature at the surface of the Earth has gone up by 0.6o Celsius since the late 19th century. It is predicted that average temperature of earth's atmosphere will increase 1o to 6o Celsius in next 100 years. This phenomenon of warming of earth's atmosphere is called Global warming. Scientists predict that Global warming may be a very serious problem for the world.

Increasing global temperatures can cause sea level to rise. It can increase the intensity of extreme weather events such as storms, hurricanes, tsunamis etc. It can also change the amount and pattern of rainfall around the world. Other indirect effects of global warming due to changes in weather include changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, species extinctions and spread of diseases.

Historically there have been changes in the Earth's climate in response to the natural forces such as variations in its orbit around the sun, volcanic eruptions etc. However, a new force is also changing earth's atmosphere that is the industrial pollutions created by humans. While scientists are still studying the impact of change made by humans, they have identified elevated levels of greenhouse gases due to human activity as the main influence. This influence is clearest for the last 50 years, for which the most detailed data are available. Two major greenhouse gases that have contributed to the global warming are carbon dioxide and methane. Their presence in the atmosphere has increased by 31% and 149% respectively since 1750.
Question 1
Which of the following will happen because of Global Warming?
A. scarcity of foodB. scarcity of heat
C. cooling of the Earth's atmosphereD. warming of the Earth's atmosphere
Question 2
How will Global Warming affect animal species?
A. animal population will increase rapidlyB. animals will extinct
C. animals will hibernateD. there will be no effect on animals
Question 3
What effect will Global Warming have on the sea level?
A. it will riseB. it will drop
C. it will disappearD. no effect
Question 4
How are humans changing the Earth's atmosphere?
A. by planting treesB. by causing industrial pollution
C. by building housesD. by traveling around the world
Question 5
Which two major greenhouse gases have contributed to the Global Warming?
A. carbon dioxide and oxygenB. carbon dioxide and ethane
C. carbon dioxide and ozoneD. carbon dioxide and methane
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In many respects, the seventeenth century is the most interesting in the history of science, and certainly, science is the most important human interest in the history of this century. Galileo begins it. Modern science is the daughter of astronomy. Modern scientists, Newton and his successors are connected with Kepler and Galileo through astronomy. The investigation of the falling body and the establishment of the laws of fall by Galileo and Kepler's great discoveries of the laws of planetary motion led to Newton's "Principia".

Newton's "Principia", this incomparable book contains all the essential principles of the science of mechanics. It was published in the year 1687. In the course of the studies leading up to this work, Newton invented the differential and integral calculus. His invention of differential and integral calculus became the source of countless achievements in mathematics and science.

Newton's work in establishing the science of mechanics was dependent upon a variety of other achievements of the century, in addition to the work of Kepler and Galileo. Especially important were the earlier progress of mathematics and invention of logarithms by Napier and Bürgi, and the discovery of analytical geometry by Descartes. Newton's work was also dependent upon the growing power and precision of scientific instruments and measurements. This development of mechanics from Galileo to Newton is perhaps the best illustration of the method of scientific progress.
Question 6
What academic subject is discussed in the paragraph?
A. MathB. Science
C. HistoryD. Astronomy
Question 7
Who discovered the laws of planetary motions?
A. GalileoB. Newton
C. KeplerD. Bürgi
Question 8
Which of the following was not discovered or invented by Newton?
A. differential calculusB. principles of the science of mechanics
C. integral calculusD. analytical geometry
Question 9
How did the scientific instruments changed during Newton's lifetime?
A. They became cheaperB. They became more available
C. They became more powerful and preciseD. They became less powerful and precise
Question 10
Which of the following scientist is not mentioned in this paragraph?
A. GalileoB. Kepler
C. BoyleD. Napier
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